The Advantages of GMO in Planetary Colonization

Over the course of history mankind has modified plants and animals to fit the needs of the population. Some animals were bred to produce more meat or softer coats, while others breeds were selected for stamina or strength. Plants were also selected for better yields, larger fruits and the ability to grow in certain conditions. Even insects have been selected over the years, especially bees and other pollinators. These genetically selected organisms offer humans an advantage and therefore have been cultivated and bred over several generations.

With the birth of modern technology, scientists have further modified plants and animals. By adding or modifying segments of the genes, plants and animals can be created for a variety of reasons. These plants and animals are genetically modified organisms (GMO.) While this might be a very controversial subject right now, in the future these organisms can give us an advantage in planetary colonization in the future.

Current GMO Projects

Even though there is a lot of controversy, there are many beneficial GMO uses.

Although we mostly think of GMOs as plants and animals, the first organisms to be modified were bacterial. Current uses for modified bacteria include protein production to treat diabetes clotting factors and human growth hormones and to produce bio fuels.

Golden rice was developed in 2000 by Ingo Potrykus and Peter Beyer to combat vitamin A deficiency which kills nearly 670,000 children under the age of 5 each year. By using and inserting genes from the daffodil and a soil bacteria, Erwinia uredovora, the Golden Rice plant is able to produce beta-carotene and store it in the rice grain.

GMO animals are important to researches. By modifying the genes of mammals, scientists can run a variety of tests for drugs, organ transplants and drug therapies. Other uses of GMO animals have produced cows that can produce human breast milk, goats that can produce spider web silk in milk, and pigs that can digest phosphorus (which leads to less water pollution.)

These modified organisms offer the human race advantages we would not have by normal means and as we advance, the modifications can have a huge advantage in the future.

Future uses of GMO

As the population of Earth grows, GMO foods will become increasingly important to keep people fed, but what happens when we leave our home world to colonize other planets. Right now we can only guess at the conditions that exist. Some may not be habitable by humans and some could be with only some modifications.

This is where genetically modified organisms could be of great assistance.

Humans need a particular combination of elements in order to survive. Oxygen levels are essential for our ability to survive. While higher levels are tolerable, low levels of oxygen would be disastrous. But what if a world with a low oxygen percentage could be seeded with organisms that would amp up the production of oxygen in the air?

Genetically modified organisms could be produced specifically for the type of planet we are trying to colonize. Oxygen can be produced by a variety of plants and animals that we have here on Earth, or other organisms from the planet itself could be modified once we broke down the genetic code.

Other hazards of a planet could be overcome with modified organisms. Many fungi on Earth can absorb hazardous waste and heavy metals. Adding those genomes to plants or even altering the fungi further could not only help clean up the Earth but allow us to colonize planets that have toxic levels of chemicals humans currently cannot tolerate.

Genetically modified organisms can also be the answer for our food needs during colonization. Many plants and animals here on Earth are edible, however, we can’t guarantee that other planets will have a sustainable food supply for us. Genetically modified plants and animals might be able to convert native plants, soils and animals into food we can eat. Wastes can also be modified to produce things we need such as bio-fuel, building materials and more.

Other options would be to modify the humans for the conditions necessary for colonization. With advances in science, humans could be modified for photosynthesis, natural sunscreen or the ability to consume native plants and animals.

So although GMOs might be a frightening aspect of our lives right now. It’s clear it gives us an advantage for humans in the future. Without specifically engineered organisms, colonizations will be much more difficult, expensive and possibly futile. So instead of looking to GMOs with fear, perhaps we should be looking at it as the next step in our evolution.

The Triumph of the Accountants, or, How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Higgs Boson

Trust the math.

No matter how crazy it seems.


If you are at all hooked into the world of science–and if you are not, you probably are looking for a different website–you must be aware of the hoopla surrounding the discovery of the Higgs boson. The news was splashed across the papers, filled the covers of Nature and Science and Physical Review. Peter Higgs, he of the eponymous particles, a gentle and shy man, became an instant celebrity, which ramped up afterwards with the awarding of the Nobel Prize to him and Brout.   Physicists argued, spittle flying, over who truly deserved the prize.

But what was the fuss about the Higgs? Why was it so important?

It short, it was all about the math. It was, in the end, making sure the microscopic books added up. It was about accounting.

Read the rest of this entry »

Alien Communication

Nanelia: The Sonar Tank. They’re wearing sound baffles in case they get in front of it. Even if we plug our ears, we can’t get any closer.
Cowboy: [to the nearby Kelvin, who are trying to get his attention] Will you two radiators stand back? It’s hard enough to think!
Nestor 1: It seems they’re volunteering.
Cowboy: Yeah, what can THEY do?
Nestor 1: Well, for one thing, the Kelvin have no ears.

Battle Beyond the Stars

Science fiction is full of unique ways alien species communicate. In the 1980 Roger Corman movie, Battle Beyond the Stars, the Kelvin have no ears because they communicate by radiating body heat. In China Mieville’s Embassytown, a race of insectoid creatures communicate using two mouths and a language that is utterly inhuman in its construction. And in the film and book Close Encounters of the Third Kind. scientists use Solresol, a language based on musical tones.

In real life, communication even within species can occur in a number of ways. Humans communicate verbally (though language, accent, tone of voice, habitual voice quality, etc.) and nonverbally (communication other than through than speech, including facial expressions, hand and arm gestures, postures, positions, and various movements of the body or the legs and feet).

Other primates communicate through vocal behavior (functional reference, call combinations, and vocal learning), olfactory signals to mark territories, screams to recruit help while fighting, gestures to request food and facial expressions to initiate play. Some fish can communicate using noises that include grunts, chirps and pops.

Even plants have been shown to be able to communicate. When bugs chew leaves, studies have shown they release volatile chemicals through their leaves and roots when damaged by herbivores that other plants can perceive and respond by increasing production of chemical weapons or other defense mechanisms. But now a unique method of communication has been discovered between a parasitic plant and it’s hosts.

Jim Westwood, a professor of plant pathology, physiology, and weed science in the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences at Virginia Tech in a study published August 15th in Science found that plants may also communicate on a molecular level. Westwood examined the relationship between a parasitic plant called a dodder, and two host plants, Arabidopsis (small flowering plants related to cabbage and mustard) and tomatoes.

The dodder wraps itself around its host, then uses an appendage called a haustorium (think of a vampire’s fangs) to penetrate the plant and suck the moisture and nutrients out of the host plants. Professor Westwood had previously shown that during this parasitic interaction, there’s a transfer of information using RNA between the dodder and it’s host. But the new study expands on that, finding that a surprising amount of messenger RNA (mRNA) is constantly being exchanged between both plants during the parasitic relationship.

Dodder attacking a sugar beet

Dodder attacking a sugar beet. Credit: Virginia Tech College of Agriculture and Life Sceinces

Westwood believes the dodder may be telling the host plant what to do, such as lowering its defenses so that the parasitic plant can more easily attack it. “The discovery of this novel form of inter-organism communication shows that this is happening a lot more than any one has previously realized,” Westwood said in a recent release. “Now that we have found that they are sharing all this information, the next question is, ‘What exactly are they telling each other?'”

Of course, creating an alien language involves more than just determining the method of communication. There’s the sentence pattern (for English, that’s Subject/Verb/Object, while in Japanese it’s Object/(particle)/Subject/Verb), vocabulary, and grammar. And you need to think outside of whatever your cultural norm is. For example, Marc Orkand, a former linguistics professor who created the Klingon language, notes in the introduction to The Klingon Dictionary:

…there are no words for greetings, such as hello, how are you, good morning, and so on. It seems apparent that such words and phrases simply do not exist in Klingon. When two Klingons meet each other (except in cases where military protocol determines behavior), if anything of an introductory nature is said, it is an expression that can best be translated as What do you want? Unlike most speakers of English, who begin conversations with greetings, inquiries about the state of health of the conversants, and remarks about the weather, Klingons tend to begin conversations by simply stating the main points.

But coming up with a unique method of communication is a good start.


Liebal, Katja, Waller, Bridget M., and Burrows, Anne M. 2013. Primate Communication: A Multimodal Approach. 2013, Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.

Okrand, Marc. The Klingon Dictionary. 1992, New York, NY: Pocket Books


One of my favorite topics is speculative agriculture, both science fiction and fantasy. What do people eat? Where does it come from? How is it grown? Answering those questions for a fictional milieu requires a wonderful mix of climate, trade, technology and culture. Sometimes there are real-world sources, like agricultural manuals or cookbooks from a particular time and place (for instance, this wonderful tenth-century agricultural calendar from Cordoba: not only when things happened, but what was important enough to be mentioned).

But this is “science in my fiction,” not “agriculture in my history.” So here’s a really interesting bit of science that if you’re a typical USian or European, you may never have thought about: bugs in space!

Yes, as food.

One of the many challenges that must be overcome if we’re going to leave this planet for extended periods is food. Raising food helps with supply chain problems, and has psychological benefits: would you want to live on preserved food and concentrates for years at a time? But there’s not likely to be room or time for meat animals (maybe fish eventually). So what about insects? They take minimal space and are extremely efficient at converting vegetable matter to protein.

Chinese research has concentrated on silkworms as a source of insect protein, but there are lots of other options, from mealworms to grasshoppers.

Eating insects could help out here on Earth too: raising insects to provide protein is enormously less resource-intensive than beef, pork or even chicken. It’s already an accepted part of the diet in many parts of the world. (And even squeamish Westerners eat plenty of insects in a year.)

Graphic of environmental costs of beef vs crickets

Can’t go into space but want to try eating insects yourself? There are plenty of prepared and packaged options.

Larvets packaged mealwork snacks

Alien Inspiration

Science fiction is full of aliens. There’s Larry Niven’s Pierson’s Puppeteers, Valentine Smith, the stranger in Robert Heinlein’s Stranger in a Strange Land, Gordon R. Dickson’s Aalaag, Alan Dean Foster’s Thranx, and H. Beam Piper’s Fuzzies, to name just a few. The Star Trek, Star Wars, And Dr. Who universes are full of them. However, as bioethicist Kyle Munkittrick wrote in Discover a few year back:

Science fiction has a problem: everyone looks the same. I know there are a few series that have aliens that look unimaginably different from human beings. But those are the exception, not the rule. Most major sci-fi series – Star Wars, Babylon 5, Mass Effect, Star Trek, Farscape, Stargate – have alien species that are hominid.

Following are five species on earth that may help you better design aliens for your stories.

The Mimic Octopus (Thaumoctopus mimicus)

Mimic Octopus

Credit: Wikipedia – licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic license

First discovered in 1998 off the coast of Sulawesi in Indonesia on the bottom of a muddy river mouth, the mimic octopus is the first known species to take on the characteristics of multiple species. Even more surprising, the mimic octopus is able to discern which dangerous sea creature to impersonate that will present the greatest threat to its current possible predator. For example, scientists observed that when the octopus was attacked by territorial damselfishes, it mimicked the banded sea snake, a known predator of damselfishes. The creatures they’ve been observed to mimic include:

  • Jellyfish: To mimic the jellyfish, the octopus swims to the surface and then slowly sinks with its arms spread evenly around its body.
  • Lion fish: To mimic the lion fish, the octopus hovers above the ocean floor with its arms spread wide, trailing from its body to take on the appearance of the lion fish’s poisonous fins.
  • Sea Anemone: The mimic octopus raises all of its arms above its head with each arm bent in a curved, zig-zag shape to resemble the lethal tentacles of the anemone.
  • Sea Snakes: The mimic octopus changes color taking on the yellow and black bands of the toxic sea snake as it waves 2 arms in opposite directions in the motion of two sea snakes.
  • Sole fish: This flat, poisonous fish is imitated by the mimic octopus by building up speed through jet propulsion as it draws all of its arms together into a leaf-shaped wedge as it undulates in the manner of a swimming flat fish.

Its mimicry also allows it to prey on animals that would ordinarily flee an octopus. For example, it can imitate a crab as an apparent mate, only to devour its deceived suitor.

Several videos of the octopus in action can be found on YouTube: Video 1, Video 2, Video 3, Video 4, Video 5

Pacific Barreleye Fish

Barreleye Fish

Credit: MBARI/Youtube

Also known as the spookfish, they get their name from their large, barrel shaped eyes topped by huge green lenses inside a round, transparent, fluid-filled head. Found 600 meters (a little over a third of a mile) or more down off the coast of California, barreleye fish use their eyes for locating planktonic crustaceans and the other small animals on which they feed. Because these organisms are often trapped in the stinging tentacles of jellyfish, it’s believed that the fish’s head helps protect their eyes from stings.

The eyes are tubular because a tubular eye allows the eye to collect a lot of light and focus it the right distance away without the eyes having to take up the whole head. The lower the level of light, the larger the lens needs to be to collect the maximum amount of light. But the larger the lens, the longer the focal length of the lens. Although for a long time it was thought the fish’s eyes were fixed in place, but in 2009 researchers Bruce Robison and Kim Reisenbichle at the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute found that they can rotate behind the transparent shield on the fish’s head. This allows the fish to peer up at potential prey or look forward when the fish is feeding. The researches also found that

In addition to their amazing “headgear,” barreleyes have a variety of other interesting adaptations to deep-sea life. Their large, flat fins allow them to remain nearly motionless in the water, and to maneuver very precisely (much like MBARI’s ROVs). Their small mouths suggest that they can be very precise and selective in capturing small prey. On the other hand, their digestive systems are very large, which suggests that they can eat a variety of small drifting animals as well as jellies. In fact, the stomachs of the two net-caught fish contained fragments of jellies.

Pistol Shrimp

Pistol shrimp

Credit: Wikipedia/U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

Also known as the snapping shrimp and the alpheid shrimp, these are small shrimp (1 -2 inches long) that have asymmetrical claws, with one claw larger than half the shrimp’s body. What makes this large claw (referred to as a snapping claw) unique is that rather than having a pincer at the end as most shrimp do, it is pistol like, with a joint allows the “hammer” part to move backward at a right-angled position. When released, it snaps into the other part of the claw, creating a cavitation bubble at up to 62 miles per hour. When the cavitation bubble collapses:

1) it reaches temperatures of over 5000 Kelvin
2) this temperature produces a bright flash of light that lasts for a fraction of a second
3) generates a sound reaching close to 220 decibels at a pressure of up to 11.7 psi (here’s a chart to put that in perspective).

If a shrimp losses the snapping claw, it will regenerate into a smaller claw. In turn, the original smaller claw will grow into a new snapping claw. Research has shown that severing the nerve of the snapping claw induces the conversion of the smaller limb into a second snapping claw.

Zombie Worms (Osedax)

Zombie Worms

Credit: Yoshihiro Fujiwara/JAMSTEC

Zombie worms, also known as boneworms or bone-eating worms, were first discovered living in the bones of a rotting gray whale on the deep sea floor nearly 10,000 feet deep in 2002. Only females consume bones – the microscopic males live inside the female bodies. After the worm larvae land on the palps of female worms, they develop into male worms, then find their way into the tube that surrounds the female’s body. Dozens live in this space, releasing sperm that fertilize the female’s eggs, but never eating. Eventually the female worm sends thousands of fertilized eggs out into the surrounding water, and the cycle begins again.

Although zombie worms eat the bones of whales and other large marine animals, they don’t have a no mouth, gut or anus. Instead, the worms use what researchers call a “bone-melting acid” that frees up the nutrients within whale and fish bones. The acid releases and absorbs collagen and lipids within the bones. Additionally, bacteria that live symbiotically within the worms are involved in helping the worms consume nutrients from the bones, although exactly how this happens isn’t fully understood.

Tardigrades (Tardigrada)


Credit: Wikimedia Commons/Goldstein Lab

Also known as water bears or moss piglets, they’re rarely longer than one millimeter in length, and have eight legs. There are more than 1,000 identified species of tardigrades, and they have the ability to survive in physical or geochemical conditions that would kill most other life on Earth. Experiments have shown they can survive being frozen at -328 degrees Fahrenheit, and heated to more than 300 degrees F. They can also withstand pressures up to 6000 times that of earths atmosphere, and can survive radiation doses that are thousands of times stronger than the fatal dose for a human. They have even been shown to be able to survive in outer space.

In 2007, European researchers exposed a sample of dehydrated tardigrades to the vacuum and solar radiation of outer space for 10 days. When the specimens returned to earth and were rehydrated, 68% of those shielded from the radiation survived, and a handful with no radiation protection survived and produced viable offspring. Then in 2011, Italian scientists sent tardigrades on board the International Space Station along with other extremophiles. They determined that microgravity and cosmic radiation “did not significantly affect survival of tardigrades in flight, confirming that tardigrades represent a useful animal for space research.”

Tardigrades survive primarily by entering a dehydrated state that closely resembles death. It curls up into a dry ball called a tun, reducing its metabolic activity to as low as .01 percent of normal levels. To achieve this state, they produce trehalose, a protective sugar that forms a gel-like medium that suspends and preserves the organelles and membranes that make up the animal’s cells. A tardigrade can survive for decades or longer in this state.

Once immersed in water, it to a normal metabolic state over the course of a few hours. Although a group of dehydrated tardigrades were reportedly taken from a museum sample of dried moss that was more than 100 years old and revived, the longer it’s dehydrated, the lower the chances it will successfully be revived afterward.

Tardigrades have additional survival strategies as well. If the oxygen content of their water medium drops too low to extract enough oxygen for respiration, they stretch out into a long, relaxed state, their metabolic rate reduced, and the relaxation of their muscles allowing as much water and oxygen to enter their cells as possible. If the temperature drops below freezing, they form a special cold-resistant tun, with molecules that prevent the formation of large ice crystals that could damage cell membranes. And their resistance to shortwave UV radiation is due is in part to their ability to efficiently repair damage to their DNA resulting from that exposure.

These are just a small sampling of the truly odd and unique life you can use as inspiration when you design your alien culture, but they should give you a place to start.


Helfman, G. S., Collette, B. B., and Facey, D. E. 1997. The Diversity of Fishes. 535 pp. Blackwell Publishing, Malden, MA.

Wiley, E. O. and Johnson, G. D. 2010. A teleost classification based on monophyletic groups. In J. S. Nelson, H.-P. Schultze, & M. V. H. Wilson (eds) Origin and Phylogenetic Interrelationships of Teleosts. Pp. 123-182, Verlag Dr. Friedrich Pfeil, München, Germany.

Maurice Burton & Robert Burton (1970). The International Wildlife Encyclopedia, Volume 1. Marshall Cavendish.

First Direct Evidence of Cosmic Inflation!

The imprint of the Big Bang

The imprint of the Big Bang: B-mode polarization (the swirls) of light coming the first fraction of a second after the birth of the Universe itself. Photo by BICEP2 Collaboration

A team of astrophysicists from the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics have announced that, for the first time, they have directly confirmed the first direct evidence for cosmic inflation, as well as the first images of gravitational waves, the signature of a universe being wrenched violently apart when it was roughly a trillionth of a trillionth of a trillionth of a second old. Working the BICEP (Background Imaging of Cosmic Extragalactic Polarization) microwave telescope located at the South Pole, reported their results in a scientific briefing at the Center for Astrophysics here on Monday, and in a set of papers submitted to The Astrophysical Journal.

The BICEP team detected peculiar fluctuations in the Cosmic Microwave Background, distant radiation left over from the beginning of the universe itself, not in its temperature, but in its polarization. Like visible light waves, this early radiation can be polarized, wiggling and oscillating in a given direction, or even in a spiral. By analyzing the particular pattern of that polarization, we can then walk backwards and figure out what gave rise to those patterns in the very, very early universe.

Back in 1978, when he had just gotten his Ph.D., physicist Alan Guth scribbled a “spectacular realization” in his lab notebook that predicted the results reported today:

Alan Guth spectacular realization

He formally proposed inflationary theory in 1980, when he was a postdoctoral scholar at SLAC. Instead of the universe beginning as a rapidly expanding fireball, Guth theorized that the universe inflated extremely rapidly from a tiny piece of space and became exponentially larger in a fraction of a second.

For more in depth explanations, check out the following links:

Brightest Lunar Explosion Ever Seen

On 2013 September 11 at 20h07m28.s68 ± 0.s01 UTC, two telescopes operated in the framework of our lunar impact flashes monitoring project recorded an extraordinary flash produced by the impact on the Moon of a large meteoroid at selenographic coordinates 17 ?.2 ± 0 ?.2 S, 20 ?.5 ± 0 ?.2 W. The peak brightness of this flash reached 2.9 ± 0.2 mag in V and it lasted over 8 s. The estimated energy released during the impact of the meteoroid was 15.6 ± 2.5 tons of TNT under the assumption of a luminous efficiency of 0.002. This event, which is the longest and brightest confirmed impact flash recorded on the Moon thus far, is analysed here. The likely origin of the impactor is discussed. Considerations in relation to the impact flux on Earth are also made.

Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 2014.

record-breaking meteorite strike on the moon

The impact of a large meteorite on the lunar surface on Sept. 11, 2013, resulted in a bright flash, observed by scientists at the MIDAS observatory in Spain.
Credit: J. Madiedo / MIDAS

On Sept. 11, 2013, a pair of telescopes from a project called MIDAS (Moon Impacts Detection and Analysis System) monitored the blast from a meteoroid crashing into the lunar surface. The meteorite hit at a speed of 37,900 mph (61,000 km/h), gouging out a new crater roughly 131 feet (40 meters) wide in an ancient lava-filled lunar basin known as Mare Nubium. The energy released by the impact was comparable to an explosion of roughly 15 tons of TNT, and was at least three times more powerful than the largest previously observed event. The flash, which lasted for about 8 seconds, was about as bright as Polaris, the North Star. The high-speed collision was recorded on video and would have been clearly visible to anyone on Earth who happened to look at the moon at the right time.

The uncertainty of the impact is fairly high, the team who made the discovery said in their paper, and the team cautioned that specifics about the meteorite’s impact were difficult to nail down, in part because its origin cannot be determined. “Two sources have been considered for the impactor,” they write. “The event was compatible with the impact geometry of the September Epsilon Perseids minor shower, but it could also be associated with a sporadic meteorid.” If it was part of the September Epsilon Perseids meteor shower, it would have a very high velocity relative to the moon, and wouldn’t need as much mass to cause an impact with this energy. In this case, the rock would have been about 45kg and 36cm across. If, however, it was a sporadic meteoroid, the velocity would be lower and the mass greater, perhaps a mass of 450kg, and a diameter as large as 1.4 meters.

The MIDAS project has been running since 2009, and has an automated pipeline for identifying impacts. The statistics it has generated suggest that some early estimates of the rate at which Earth is bombarded may be low by as much as a factor of 10. In their paper, the team noted “Thus, the impact energy of the lunar impact flash would be equivalent to an impact energy of 28.3 ± 4.5 tons of TNT on Earth for the sporadic meteoroid and 24.3 ± 3.8 tons of TNT for the SPE meteoroid. So, by performing the corresponding surface area scaling between both bodies, the impact rate on Earth for events with an energy above these values would be of about 1680 ± 1050 events per year.”

“Our telescopes will continue observing the Moon as our meteor cameras monitor the Earth’s atmosphere,” said Madiedo and Ortiz in a press release. “In this way we expect to identify clusters of rocks that could give rise to common impact events on both planetary bodies. We also want to find out where the impacting bodies come from.”

A video of the impact has been posted on YouTube.

Close Encounters Of The Sexual Kind

A good bit of imagination has gone into attempts to represent close encounters of a sexual kind. Major authors, such as Ursula K. Le Guin, Philip Jose Farmer, and Octavia Butler, have written critically-acclaimed novels in which deep emotional, intimate, and sexual relations between humans and aliens form the central narrative. Significant episodes of the various Star Trek series have also shown intimate relations among aliens — sometimes between humans and aliens, sometimes among different alien species (such as the relationship between the Klingon Whorf and the Trill Jadzia Dax in Deep Space Nine). Star Trek’s own Mr. Spock was the product of a marriage between a human female and a male alien from the fictional planet Vulcan.

The human/alien sex trope typically assumes that an alien species would reproduce in a manner that’s compatible with how humans reproduce, but that can be a dangerous assumption, judging by the way many species on earth reproduce. The male of the deep sea anglerfish, for example, attaches to the female permanently, fusing with her blood stream and gradually atrophying until they are just a pair of gonads that release sperm into the female in response to hormonal cues in her blood, a process known as sexual parasitism. Other species, such as the New Mexico whiptail, are an all-female species. Adult female New Mexico whiptails reproduce solely through parthenogenesis (a type of asexual reproduction in which a female gamete or egg cell develops into an individual without fertilization), laying unfertilized eggs that develop into other female whiptails.

There are organisms without distinctive male and female forms. The black mold Rhizopus nigricans, displays an unusual form of reproduction known as “heterothallism.” This species of fungus requires two organisms are for fertilization and replication to take place. However, the two sexes are physically indistinguishable. There are no constant differences between members of opposite mating groups other than their reciprocal behavior when crossed. Thus, it is impossible to designate one form of the black mold as male and the other as female. Customarily the complementary groups are labeled merely “+” and “-” for convenience during experiments.

If some species have no distinctive examples of male and female forms, others have more than two sexes. Some species have one female and two male genders include red deer who have two male morphs (distinct forms of an organism or species), one with antlers and one without, known as hummels or notts, as well as several species of fish such as plainfin midshipman fish and coho salmon. Others have one female and three male genders, including bluegills, where four distinct size and color classes exhibit different social and reproductive behaviors, the spotted European wrasse (Symphodus ocellatus), the Oreochromis mossambicus cichlid, and the ornate tree lizard (Urosaurus ornatus).1 Slime mold has thirteen sexes, while the fungus Schizophyllum commune has over 28,000 sexes.

Other organisms lack specific maleness and femaleness, but exhibit an alternating or intermediate condition. For example, simultaneous hermaphrodites possess at once both female and male sex organs. Ovaries and testes are present together in the same individual. Matings occur in pairs, with each partner serving both sexual roles at the same time. Planarians, earthworms, sponges and snails fall into this category, as well as a few among more highly evolved vertebrates are known, such as the belted flamefish (Serranus subltgarius). Some simultaneous hermaphrodites form harems, in which a single male supervises a school of females. If the male is killed, the dominant female in the harem transitions and takes his place. In such harems, the male is usually responsible for defending the school from invaders and protecting his territory to ensure that his flock does not wander astray or encounter potential dangers.

There are also species where individuals start life as one sex and finish it as another, called sequential hermaphrodites. There are two types of sequential hermaphrodites. Animals which are born male with the ability to become female exhibit a trait of protandry. Protogyny, on the other hand, is a trait in which animals are born as females, with the ability to become males later in life. Depending on the species, simultaneous hermaphrodites may change sex only once, or they may be able to flip back and forth between genders several times. Oysters, for example, are born as males, then spend the rest of their lives switching back and forth between male and female in irregular cycles a few months long.

Given these tremendous potential biological differences, would or could copulation be possible at all between humans and extraterrestrials?


There are well-documented cases of attempted and successful sex between different species. These include dolphins and humans. seals and penguins, otters and seals, sheep and deer, orangutans and humans, and humans with various farm animals. This suggests that, if humans were to mingle socially with alien races, interspecies sexual contacts are at least possible.

Even if such activity were possible, how likely would it be? Could humankind and an alien race derive sexual pleasure from mutual physical encounters?

Suppose, for example, we discovered an alien race that is sequential hermaphroditic. In this society, individuals spend their early life neither male or female, then attain puberty and enter their first sexually active phase as functioning males. After a certain amount of time, latent ovaries within them ripen into maturity, and the individual, now considered an adult, spends the remainder of its life as a female.

In such a society, monogamous marriage as we know it would be impossible. Husbands would change into wives, and males would be too immature psychologically to be treated as anything other than young lovers. Since all fertile middle-aged females in a family in theory could mate with any or all male children, it’s likely there would be complex incest prohibitions. To offset the negative effects of inbreeding, exchanges of matriarchs would occur between families. Love as humans understand it probably would not exist. In such a society, females would likely have strong affective and familial non-sexual ties with other females. Human concepts of male/female romantic relationships would be quite incomprehensible to them. Even if their sexual organs were compatible with those of a human, and neither species found the physical appearance of the other repellant, the sensitivities of the alien race would likely be such that there wouldn’t be any desire on their part to have any type of sexual contact with humans.


1. See Roughgarden, Joan (2004). Evolution’s Rainbow: Diversity, Gender, and Sexuality in Nature and People. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-24073-1 Especially chapter 6, Multiple Gender Families, pp. 75–105.

Further Reading

The Sex Is Out of This World: Essays on the Carnal Side of Science Fiction, edited by Sherry Ginn, Michael G. Cornelius, Donald E. Palumbo, and C.W. Sullivan III

Alien Sex: From Ming the Merciless to “The Lovers, David Lumb and Jonathan Alexander, Los Angeles Review of Books

Alien Sex Acts in Feminist Science Fiction: Heuristic Models for Thinking a Feminist Future of Desire“. Alcena Madeline Davis Rogan, PMLA, Vol. 119, No. 3, Special Topic: Science Fiction and Literary Studies: The Next Millennium (May, 2004), pp. 442-456

NASA’s Crowdsourced Search for Planetary Habitats

NASA Goddard announced on January 30th that it’s sponsoring a new project and website, Disk Detective, which allows people to discover “embryonic planetary systems” hidden in the data generated by NASA’s Wide-field infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) mission. The data mining and analysis effort is NASA’s largest ever crowdsourcing project, and the agency says its main goal is to produce publishable scientific results.

“Through Disk Detective, volunteers will help the astronomical community discover new planetary nurseries that will become future targets for NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope and its successor, the James Webb Space Telescope,” said James Garvin, the chief scientist for NASA Goddard’s Sciences and Exploration Directorate.

WISE was designed to survey the entire sky at infrared wavelengths. From a perch in Earth orbit, the spacecraft completed two scans of the entire sky between 2010 and 2011. It took detailed measurements on more than 745 million objects, representing the most comprehensive survey of the sky at mid-infrared wavelengths currently available.

WISE was shut down in 2011 after its primary mission was completed, but was reactivated in September 2013, renamed the Near-Earth Object Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (NEOWISE), and given a new mission, to assist NASA’s efforts to identify the population of potentially hazardous near-Earth objects (NEOs). NEOWISE also can assist in characterizing previously detected asteroids that could be considered potential targets for future exploration missions.

Developed alongside Zooniverse, a network of scientists, software developers, and educators, the project will make sifting through the astronomical data easier. From 2010 to 2011 WISE, which is locked in Earth orbit, scanned the entire sky in infrared, measuring some 745 million objects in detail. NASA is in the process of searching through this data for planets that form and grow in “dust-rich circumstellar disks,” which shine brightly in infrared wavelengths.

The problem is that other objects, such as galaxies, interstellar dust clouds, and asteroids, also shine in infrared. This infrared noise makes it difficult to identify planet-forming environments – Young Stellar Object disks (gaseous and less than 5 million years old), and debris disks, which are 5 million years or older and contain little to no gas. The former are found in or near young star clusters, while the latter contains “belts of rocky or icy debris that resemble the asteroid and Kuiper belts” found in our solar system.

To deal with this problem, Disk Detective takes images from WISE and other sky surveys (the James Webb Telescope will contribute data in the future) and converts them to brief animations the website calls flip books. Volunteers then classify objects according to specific but simplecriteria, such as whether the image is round or includes multiple objects. Working on this cataloged image analysis, astronomers will then decide which objects deserve greater attention.

Herbig-Haro 30

Herbig-Haro 30 is the prototype of a gas-rich young stellar object disk. The dark disk spans 40 billion miles in this image, cutting the bright nebula in two and blocking the central star from direct view. Volunteers can help astronomers find more disks like this through [Credit: NASA/ESA/C. Burrows (STScI)]

For more information, you can watch the NASA | Disk Detective: Search for Planetary Habitats video, and this Hubble Space Telescope Google hangout.

Jellyfish-Like Flying Machines

Jellyfish-;ike robot

Credit: Dr. Leif Ristroph / NYU

Researchers have built a small vehicle whose flying motion resembles the movements of a Jellyfish.

inventor Dr. Leif Ristroph, a postdoctoral researcher at New York University, wanted to determine if he could invent a winged flying machine that was inherently stable, with no sensors or artificial nervous system needed. After trying several designs, he ended up creating a cone-like machine made of four wings that are hinged at the top approximately 3 inches (8 centimeters) long, surrounding a small motor, a commercially available component about the size of the vibrator in a cell phone and which accounts for about half the mass of the device. The motor, located at the at the top, opens and closes the wings together not-quite-simultaneously at a rate of 20 times a second.

Other flying robots, like the tiny robotic bee built at Harvard’s Wyss Institute, or the H2bird flapping-wing drone built at a lab at Berkeley, sense the direction and location and adjust their movements to stay in the air. But the lightweight, electrically powered flyer keeps itself right side up without the benefit of sensors or any righting mechanism. Instead, the stability is a result of the shape and the movement of the wings.

Dr. Ristroph and his colleagues detailed their invention in the January 15th in the Journal of the Royal Society. They also presented the robot at the 66th Annual Meeting of the APS Division of Fluid Dynamics last November. In addition to showing that the flying device is stable, Ristroph and Stephen Childress, also at NYU, found that the size of the machine mainly depends on the weight and power of the motor.

“What’s cool is you can actually build these flying things yourself,” Ristroph told LiveScience. “All the components I used to make this, they cost about $15 and they’re available on hobby airplane websites.”

The top figures illustrate the body and wing design; the bottom figures detail the motor assembly (left), and the wingspan assembly (right).

The top figures illustrate the body and wing design; the bottom figures detail the motor assembly (left), and the wingspan assembly (right). Images © Journal of The Royal Society

The prototype doesn’t include a battery, so the ornithopter, as they call it, requires a wire for power. More engineering work is necessary to get power and a radio receiver onboard so that an operator can control the ornithopter from a distance. It also can’t steer, either autonomously or via remote control.

You can view a YouTube video of the ornithopter in action here.